Individuals exhibit unique behaviors when alone or when in groups. The environment and genetic constitution determine a person’s personality/ psychological attributes. Organizations should therefore apply principles highlighted by Skinner and Jung in motivating workers appropriately. Individuals are born as either introverts or extroverts. In addition, one’s immediate environment shapes behavior in a unique manner. Blanket assumptions are therefore risky as far as designing a typical organizational culture is concerned. Individual employee effort should be recognized and appreciated in order to promote healthy competition among workers as well as stimulating innovation (Segal 12).
In addition, group dynamics should be developed on the premise that individuals interact and express themselves differently when alone and when in a group of people. Through socialization, workers are capable of overcoming naïve tendencies. Introverts are more likely to express themselves in a group made up of familiar members. At individual level, persons are differentiated in the manner in which they interact with one another. Extroversion is a consequence of environmental impact in social setting s that successfully overcomes anti-social and naïve qualities. The external qualities of individuals can be shaped and modified in order to conform to an appropriate organizational culture that allows for meaningful exchange of ideas and decision-making(Wilson 18). The process of making and receiving feedback demands that employees are seasoned in their interactions.
Skinner’s theory of personality is based on the principle that the immediate environment around a person has an impact on his/her wellbeing. Individuals respond to occurrences in their surrounding environment depending on the frequency of exposure and the resulting consequences. The term “operant” is applied to describe responses that are conditioned by multiple behaviors. Consequently, rewards and punishments are directed towards operant conditioning of behaviors of various persons in different settings. Reinforcement is the process by which a particular type of behavior is sustained. Positive reinforcement is achieved through rewards (Gehart 10). On the other hand, punishment serves to reduce negative connotations of bad behavior. According to Skinner, operant conditioning of behavior is both a generalization and discrimination of personalities.
The assumption is that individuals will respond in a specific manner if exposed to particular circumstances. Stimulus generalization is an attribute that reflects operant conditioning of behaviors in unique settings. A family with a strong social bond between parents and children is bound to develop behavior that conforms to acceptable norms. Single parents find it difficult to provide for their children while at the same monitoring their behaviors closely. Juvenile delinquency is therefore a consequence of weak social bonds between parents and children (Gold & Bratton 15). The workplace is a dynamic environment that demands for strict adherence to schedules, rules and terms of references. Employees are carefully monitored by those in positions of management as far as their performance is concerned. Freedom and dignity govern interactions among people in society at all times. Skinner opposes theories that advance a position for self-development of individuals through internal processes such as free will and emotional growth. The main emphasis employed by Skinner for operant conditioning of behaviors is attributed to outward manifestation of actions and their resultant consequences.
Group Learning and teamwork
Freedom and dignity are essential in promoting positive behavior change in society. Work teams are social groups where lifelong learning can take place. Teamwork stimulates exchange of innovative ideas through interaction of group members. Reinforcement of positive behavior is a consequence of rewards that motivate workers to achieve greater career goals and company objectives. Money and social approval are the main reward packages that motivate workers to direct their efforts towards achieving organizational goals. Through teamwork, employees are socialized and interdependent (Nye 20). As such, communication and exchange of ideas is enhanced through mutual interaction and group activities. Discrimination and punishment are used for negative reinforcement of bad behavior. Team leaders are therefore responsible for coordinating group activities to the extent of eradicating bad influence while promoting acceptable norms that comply with company policies and organizational culture.
Team members are thence a family union characterized by unique traits. The group offers some sort of a microenvironment that allows members to build on their character traits and potentials in conformity with unique attributes. Essentially, team managers are facilitators who ensure that members are positively engaged in-group activities that are completed within scheduled timeframes. The role of performing projects is not an individual matter but a group endeavor. The terms of references used match with the culture that is proportional with company systems and objectives. Deviation from the organizational culture renders one susceptible to punishment as defined by the constitution of the organization. Destructive influences are eliminated through such negative rewards as dismissal, fines, public reprisals and demotions (Gehart 23). Hence, freedom to exercise one’s mandate on duty is a collective responsibility that abides by the rules and obligations of the entire organization. The group serves to represent the image and culture of the company through accomplishment of tasks unique to it.
There are several components important for an effective performance management process
Performance management is a systematic process of evaluating employee productivity and performance by managers in order to determine the extent to which the vision and mission of an organization has been achieved. Several components are designed by managers to ensure that employees; actions do not contradict established organizational goals. These components include;
- Planning tasks and setting expectations
Strategic planning is part of effective organizations. Planning enables tasks and processes to be carried out in a systematic manner. The efforts of individual and teams within organizations are therefore directed towards business goals through effective planning (Gold& Bratton 43). As such, it is important that employees be integrated into the planning process in order to ensure successful implementation of purposes of a company that has employed them.
- Continuously conducting employee monitoring
Actions and behaviors of employees are continuously monitored by managers of an organization. Employee monitoring enables managers to judge employees’ performance on assigned tasks as well as creates an opportunity for giving and receiving feedback as far as achieving organizational goals is concerned.
- Developing and training
Effective organizations have an established structure for training their employees from time to time. Employee training and development is carried out in accordance with performance benchmarks. Through effective employee training programs, managers entrust their subordinates with new tasks that come with higher levels of responsibility. Training therefore acts as a tool for streamlining work processes with skills acquisition interventions based on performance indicators (Gold& Bratton 55). Employee training reinforces workers’ competencies to perform their duties in addition to helping them adapt to organizational changes.
- Systematic appraisal of employee performance in summary manner
Employee performance also entails identification of talented workers from unsatisfied laborers. Performance appraisal systems apply in performance management against standards and indicators measuring workers’ performance results. The best performance compares with exemplary individual performance (Gold& Bratton 68). Poor performance refers to appraisal rates from unsatisfied employees and those with a negative attitude towards their tasks and organization in general.
Identify the four options traditionally chosen when a current employee tests positive for drug abuse
Therapeutic counseling develops positive attitude on the addict to respond to rehabilitation, treatment and behavioral change.
Interventions meant to encourage the addict to transform in behavior from a lifestyle of substance abuse to normal life.
Therapy directed towards eliminating illicit drugs as well as restoring normalcy on the patient’s biological systems.
The final step taken to dissociate an addict from being an employee of an organization is due to failure to adhere to counseling, rehabilitation and treatment interventions. This prevents transmission of the negative habit to co-workers.
Jung personality theory
Jung believed in inner healing reflected through spiritual archetypes. Jung classified psychoanalysis into “theories of introversion and extroversion” and highlighted religion as a personal unconscious obsession that all human beings experience in their lives (Wilson 31). Essentially, all religions are the same and mystical. This mythology informed his arguments as far personality functions and dysfunctions were concerned. The methodology applied by Jung describes much of analytical psychology in understanding feelings and perceptions of people’s lives. Jung presents a concept called “collective unconscious” as a universal phenomenon that is passed from one generation to another (Segal 20). A man’s ancestral past subsequently inherited from his/her predecessors dominates. Spirituality assists in understanding the personality dynamics expressed by individuals since the unseen happenings in their mental faculties manifest differently.
Myths are therefore an important element of a person’s psyche that should guide the process of self-exploration in understanding self. Top this end, Christian symbols that highlight faith and other myths associated with cultural values are definitive of the collective unconscious of an individual. A careful study of human qualities, relationships and psychological aspects facilitates the process of demystifying leadership, empathy and motivation. According to Jung, individuals are either introverts or extroverts with reference to their personality traits. Introverts spend most of their time by themselves doing their best to keep from groups or large collections of people. Introverts are not necessarily social misfits but people who prefer less company in life particularly when they are concentrating on something important (Segal 26). Such persons concentrate on what they do for a significant period without disturbance.
In addition, introverts take time processing decisions. They are therefore likely to become uncomfortable being rushed through activities, decision-making processes and group tasks. As such, introverts are better placed performing tasks such as “writing, researching, meditating and think tanks” (Wilson 39). Essentially, introverts are interested in activities that demand for thorough mental concentration and working in seclusion. Professions such as psychology are perfectly a career for introverts. Jung described introverts as individuals with “low libido” for the outside world. Libido in this perspective translates to mean psychology energy. Introvert professionals are therefore good analyzers and influential thinkers in society with a strong psychological energy towards self.
On the other hand, extroverts prefer spending their time with many people and love to take charge of the group. Such individuals are proactive in their participation in-group activities particularly in solving problems. Extroverts are good team players who are always interested in leading others. They are equally friendly and like travelling, talking and participating in recreational activities such as sports. Essentially, extroverts are effective leaders since they possess good communication skills that enable them to interact satisfactorily. Such individuals are not afraid of interacting, sharing and leading large groups of people. Ancestry remains an important feature of Jung’s psychological theory whereby the choice of being either introvert or extrovert is beyond an individual’s choice. People are born introverts or extroverts. However, there are persons who exhibit multiple traits associated with extroversion and introversion (Segal 35). To this end, a dominant trait shifts the equilibrium in an individual’s personality profile to a sphere of greater psychological energy. In this case, an introvert is capable of adjusting behavior and attitude by demonstrating extroversion in the presence of familiar people.
On the other, the same introvert is likely to remain withdrawn in the presence of strangers. Organizations are therefore required to modify and adjust their organizational culture in order to accommodate different personalities at workplace. Motivation involves application of positive effort towards recognizing introverts and extroverts (Wilson 51). Subsequently professional appreciation of their respective interests, personality and potentialities with regard to job description and reward schemes is necessary. Performance measurement should reflect diversity of persons in terms of not only career specialties but also personality indexes.
Psychoanalysis is therefore a useful tool for designing policies that match with a myriad of psychological archetypes. For instance, extroverts who are passionate about developing the welfare of other people should elevated to leadership positions at workplace. Organizations should also design cultural values and principles that appreciate introverts as professionals focused on analytical work and research. Since introverts are good in reflecting and meditating, they can be assigned responsibilities that demand for thorough concentration such as computer programming, quality assurance and research and development.
Trait theory in personality
According to the trait theory, people exhibit different personalities depending on the nature of upbringing, social environment and genetic predisposition. Individuals who possess a strong personality in life exhibit confidence and a resilient self esteem which enables them to overcome bad influence and wrong judgment. The trait theory therefore classifies individuals through a structure that identifies with people’s character and social wellbeing. Socialization plays a major role in shaping people’s traits since they obtain justifications to commit certain actions from values and principles cherished in the society. For instance, criminals engage in deviant behavior depending on the environment they are raised in taking into consideration the people they socialize. A stable family background where both parents participate in guiding children towards acquiring acceptable socially behavior eliminates chances of delinquency and deviance. On the other hand, the lack of a strong social bond between parents and children due to divorce or separation limits the potential of children developing a solid personality against mischief. Personality can be described as the internal potential to be decisive and principled in character. Character trait is shaped by a person’s emotional wellbeing and social background. Psychological disengagement from the society and oneself provides the moral legitimacy for criminal behavior.
Human personality functions
Fundamentally, all people are born “angels” while the society that shapes people’s traits into either conventional behavior or deviance. The values and principles, which people acquire in life, are a summation of different factors that include psychological development and emotional wellbeing. As people interact in the society, they tend to adjust their perceptions of right and wrong depending on what the immediate social group they belong to subscribe. Family background is central to development of character and conventional personality functions. Different behavioral attributes are a function of people’s response to feelings, emotions and thoughts that generate from physical and environmental causes. The society helps people to identify a particular manner of responding to certain issues based on beliefs, traditions and values that identify with it.
Feelings of despair and disenchantment originate from a state of lawlessness and hopelessness in the mainstream society. Distorted thinking arises from negative thought patterns that are a function of poor attitudes. A person’ cognitive faculties enable him/her to appreciate the environment. Based on prior knowledge and perceptions, judgment is made on the relevance of various activities in society to an individual. Individuality is therefore derived from a particular philosophical background and psychological status. Knowledge of oneself is important in defining purpose in life and orientation towards the right thing. Inability to appreciate the concept of individuality and personality condemns one into a state of confusion and fear. Anxious moments degenerate a person’s emotional wellbeing into disorderliness and resentment.
Motivation, leadership and teamwork are useful attributes of employee management in organizations. However, it is difficult to integrate workers from different backgrounds, professions and personalities in a single entity without creating an environment where constructive interaction takes place (Segal 40). Essentially, reinforcement of acceptable norms as far as organizational culture is concerned is a challenge that demands for thorough appreciation of different personalities. Business organizations offer lucrative opportunities to competent employees to perform specialized duties that match with their credentials and personality attributes. Consequently, human resource professionals should determine beforehand every class that identify with each employee in their organizations.
Recruitment and selection procedures should appreciate diversity in personalities and character profiles. Employee training should also be structured in a manner to direct efforts towards integrating new workers in systems and cultures in place. Personal goals and ambitions in life need to be recognized at an individual level in order to motivate workers. Bad behavior and disgruntled elements must be eliminated from other employees who are passionate about developing their lives and achieving company objectives. Despite of the importance of adjusting people’s traits for adapting useful behavior, character molding should be professionally done with respect to ancestral influence (Wilson 60).
Gehart, Dixon R. Mastering Competencies in Family Therapy: a Practical Approach to Theories and Clinical Case Documentation. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Gold, James & Bratton, John. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. London: Rout ledge, 2001.
Nye, Rogers. D. Three Psychologists: Perspectives from Freud, Skinner, and Rogers, second ed. Brooks/Cole analyzes the human personality in terms of psychodynamic, behavioral, and trait theories. New York: McGraw, 2001.
Segal, Morley. Points of Influence: a Guide to Using Personality Theory at Work. Michigan: Jossey-Bass.
Wilson, Fiona. Organizational Behavior and Work: A Critical Introduction. London: Oxford University Press, 2010.