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Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus


Diabetes is a metabolic disease that increases blood sugar. Clinicians clarify diabetes based on hormonal secretion. The hormonal secretion for diabetes mellitus is insulin. Vasopressin stimulates the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that causes excessive urine production. The elevated sugar level stimulates the hormonal imbalance. As a result, the antidiuretic hormone affects the water retention capacity of the kidney.

Patients with diabetes insipidus experience weakness, lethargy, muscle pains, and irritability (American Diabetes Association, 2011). Hormonal alteration controls the kidney imbalance in diabetes insipidus. However, the symptoms of chronic conditions of diabetes insipidus include enuresis, anorexia, growth defects, and fatigue (Huether & McCcance, 2012).

Diabetes mellitus is a condition caused by an elevated sugar level. As a result, hormonal deficiency of insulin or insulin resistance stimulates the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include blurred vision, excessive urine production, and weight loss.

The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus starts with the regulation of insulin. Food absorption, liver, and glycogen control insulin production (McPhee, & Hammer, 2012). The insulin level determines the glucose concentration in the body. As a result, hormonal insulin transports and stimulates blood glucose. However, the shortage of blood glucose will affect the level of insulin. As a result, the beta cells will experience an insulin shortage. Thus, insulin shortage affects the distribution of glucose and glycogen. The imbalance in body insulin will elevate the blood sugar to cause diabetes mellitus.

The pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus starts with the hormonal secretion of vasopressin. The hypothalamus produces hormonal vasopressin. As a result, vasopressin regulates the movement of body fluid. A change in the secretion of vasopressin will increase the permeability of the kidney. Because of the imbalance, stimulation and secretion of AVP are impaired.

Similarities and differences between resulting alterations in hormonal regulation

Clinicians differentiate diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus using hormonal action, excessive levels, and polyuria condition. Hormonal action describes the active secretion that stimulates the pathophysiology of diabetes. Vasopressin controls the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus while insulin controls the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. The clinical manifestation of diabetes mellitus causes a disproportionate level of blood sugar and poor health (Phadke & Bagirath, 2012).

However, the clinical manifestation of diabetes insipidus causes excessive urine production and dehydration. Polyuria is a clinical symptom of diabetes. However, the kidney influences the reason for polyuria in diabetes insipidus. Excessive blood glucose stimulates the symptoms of diabetes mellitus. In diabetes insipidus, excessive urination stimulates polyuria while hyperglycemia stimulates polyuria in diabetes mellitus.

The impact of gender on the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes

Clinical examination of blood, sodium, calcium and bicarbonate levels in body electrolytes expose diabetes insipidus. However, plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin expose diabetes mellitus. The impact of gender on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and insipidus affects health intervention practice (Marquis & Hutson, 2010).

In diabetes insipidus, the gene sequence is X-linked. As a result, female patients are carriers while male patients are clinically involved. Surveys revealed that gender affects the treatment of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus (Huether & McCcance, 2012). Thus, the genetic composition of female patients impedes drug administration. As a result, male patients receive better health interventions than women. Women complicate the treatment and dosage administration.


Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are conditions that alter the sugar level of the body. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of both disorders depend on the clinical manifestation. Hormonal secretion of insulin and vasopressin control the pathophysiology of both disorders. As a result, vasopressin stimulates the alteration of hormonal regulation in diabetes insipidus. However, insulin alteration stimulates the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Gender affects the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.


American Diabetes Association. (2011). Diabetes statistics. Web.

Huether, S. E., & McCcance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Web.

Marquis, L. & Hutson, J. (2010). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Classical views of leadership and management. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Web.

McPhee, J., & Hammer, D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate custom ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. Web.

Phadke, K. & Bagirath, A. (2012). Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Indian J Nephrol, 11(3) 82-86. Web.