Taking into consideration the aspect of personalized care, the quality of care is essential to the universal health care strategy statements such as financial statements. In addition, the quality of care associated with the care of surgical patients and individualized care is linked with satisfaction and health-associated quality of existence. Individualized care is as well essential in the health care process and the improvement of the quality of life. Nevertheless, even though the significance of individualized care and its success in attaining positive results for patients as well as health care providers has been ascertained, individualized care structures frequently remain in advancement phases (Koren, 2010).
Moreover, nurses do not appear to be universally encouraged of their effectiveness in their daily practice. Nurses are becoming more empowered and thus they have built up proficiency in clinical backgrounds. Nonetheless, even though the evaluation of the degree of individualized care provided could generate notions for quality of life and satisfaction, they are not helpful when the results are neither admitted nor incorporated in health care systems. This research paper will evaluate and analyze an article by Suhonen, Valima and Leino-Kilpi entitled “Individualized care, quality of life and satisfaction with nursing care”.
Research Problems, Research Questions and Hypothesis
Effective nurses need competent leadership and administration in the execution of individualized care, and thus nurse leaders have a key function in leading and administering clinical processes so that strategies, directives, and studies are considered. The research problems, research questions, and hypothesis in this article have failed to illustrate that there could be a lack or shortage of an inclusive and collective comprehension concerning the administration of health care practices, thus resulting in the failure of the backing of managers in promoting the advancement and provision of individualized care. In fact, the research problems and research questions are either vague or absent (Koren, 2010).
The basic patient principles inbuilt within individualized care identify the distinctiveness of the person in the reception of care styled to satisfy individual requirements. Nevertheless, in numerous care settings for surgical patients, the provision of individualized care is hindered by a nursing culture that concentrates on duty orientation, inflexible hierarchical frameworks, and the subsequent disempowerment of nurses.
In several instances in care settings for surgical patients, stabilized trials are applied to emphasize clinical autonomy, which is a significant aspect of individualized care. On the contrary, stabilized trails could decrease care to customs and missions that do not consider the distinctiveness of individual patients. A comprehension of the impacts that trail practices have on professional principles and clinical processes necessitates lasting programs of research and development administered by skilled leaders (Koren, 2010).
Concerning social care and demography, the quality of life and satisfaction is under close inspection thus leading to demands for a decrease in the provision of standardized care and anticipation and necessity for the individualized care of surgical patients as per the health care strategy. Individualized care is an aspect of care in the quality of life, which underscores an esteemed value in nursing and a sign directing principle in the nursing viewpoint. Individualized care enhances various involvements and cares reactions with dissimilar patients in comparable conditions in different settings and it considers the social systems and living conditions of patients.
Individualized nursing care is a paramount element in the avoidance of side effects of chronic situations in health support and in promoting clinical results like satisfaction and quality of life (Pelzang, 2010). Individualized care boosts the advancement of care and welfare of patients caused by alterations inward arrangement, nursing methods, and interventions. A credible article ought to present the research problem in its introduction to the study and relying on the matter under investigation several researchers will submit to it as the purpose of the study. For any credible article, the statement must at least generally point out to the reader the content of the article. Extensive problems are frequently complicated, and thus they necessitate being narrowed down and centered on a critical point before being researched.
This study lacks a literature review section. The basic function of a literature review is to identify or establish the research question while as well generating a suitable means of data collection. It as well assists in spotting any research gaps for the problem and proposes an applicable way of filling the existing gaps. It must illustrate a proper extent and profundity of readings on the topic at hand. Most of the studies included in a literature review must be of a contemporary source and possibly less than five years old except in exceptional cases (for example, areas of limited research). A different significant deliberation is the nature and origin of literature at hand. In this regard, primary empirical information obtained from a source has greater suitability compared to a secondary source that depends on personal proof or ideas that are not based on research.
A trustworthy literature review normally starts by introducing data that bears the keywords employed in the study and information concerning the applied databases. The arguments emerging from the literature must then be put forth and be explained (Pelzang, 2010). Inputting forth previous studies, the information must be reviewed thoroughly by emphasizing the strengths as well as the limitations of the research. Finally, this article ought to have compared and contrasted the results of other research in its literature review.
Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
In the article under critique, a pilot study was carried out to assist in recognizing the feasibility of the study and discovering likely difficulties in the design, assessing the dependability and applicability of the instruments, and investigating the clarity of the provided instructions. Following the pilot study, it was found necessary to make minor alterations to the Individualized Care Scale (ICS) questionnaire, concerning the free remarks of the patient regarding the suitability of the items. Theoretical frameworks could be a conceptual representation that is employed as a pathfinder for the study or arguments from the literature that is abstractly mapped and applied in setting restrictions for the research.
Therefore, a suitable framework should have been employed in this study to identify the different concepts under study and the connections among the said concepts (Pelzang, 2010). A research study ought to have then been established on this hypothesis by way of empirical scrutiny. Several conceptual frameworks may employ a hypothesis as conceptual frameworks tend to be suitably established in experimental as well as quasi-experimental research and frequently inadequately established an expressive research. Therefore, in a brilliant article, the theoretical and conceptual frameworks must be vividly identified and discussed to the understanding of reader.
The cross-sectional, expressive, and connected survey in the article by Suhonen, Valima and Leino-Kilpi was a section of a bigger study project assessing individualized care from the perspective of a surgical patient. The research for this article was conducted in three major hospitals. One of the district hospitals in Finland served a total population of around 165,000 individuals. The individuals served by this hospital comprised grown-up patients receiving care in the surgical wards. This study considered patients as being in the population served by the hospital when they had obtained care from surgical wards, were discharged from the hospital and were capable of filling the questionnaire without assistance.
At least 10 to 15 individuals were selected for every variable with an extra 50 individuals that have been recommended for analysis. In the study present in the article, there was a requirement of approximately 270 individuals. About probable loss, the study chose to work with exactly 300 patients. In the end, 279 surgical patients took back their filled questionnaires (Suhonen, Valima, & Leino-Kilpi, 2005). The standard age of the participants was 52 years of age with the males being 126 individuals (or 45%) and the females being a total of 153 (or 55%), which demonstrated a slight over-representation of female patients.
The questionnaire adopted had 20 items designed to study the opinions of the patients on two different aspects (that is, ICA and ICB). In any research, the extent to which a sample represents the entire population from which it was obtained denotes its representativeness. Concerning quantitative study, the sample is a crucial aspect in the determination of the sufficiency of research (Suhonen, Valima, & Leino-Kilpi, 2005). In a bid to choose a suitably representative sample and classify outcomes that are perhaps easy to generalize to the entire population, the article applied a probability sample as required.
The size of a sample that is selected for study is as well significant since small samples could be excessively representative of a certain group within the population. In the article, although the sample used is moderately high, there was a slight overrepresentation of female patients thus generating a slight possibility of a sampling error. The degree of sampling errors reduces as bigger sample sizes are adopted by a study (Dubois, Pomey, Girard, & Brault, 2013). In choosing the sample for the study in the article, the researchers were in a position to identify the entire population vividly and the method applied in the choice of participants.
Concerning the data collection in the article, approval for participation was demanded by a nurse, in every ward, in successive orders from surgical patients who satisfied the inclusion standard. The ones that were ready to take part in the study obtained a questionnaire as well as an introductory correspondence comprising information on the type and intention of the research, anonymity, privacy of personal details, and the right to decline participation. The employees on the wards issued questionnaires during the discharge of a patient. Concerning ethical considerations, the applicable ethics committee endorsed the research and authorization to carry it out was acquired from the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) of the hospital.
About the analysis of data, the article employed the SPSS software. Eight total scores showing individualized care were employed. The perceptions of patients concerning the particular method of nursing care in enhancing person-centeredness, the clinical condition of patients, quality of life and decisional control just to mention a few, were analyzed. Additionally, there were three scores for satisfaction with individualized nursing care (Goodman, 2010). The aforementioned scores included technical care requirements, information, and support.
Different methods could be employed in data collection and they include questionnaires, observational tools, and interviews. As used in the article, questionnaires are commonly applied for their suitability as gathering instruments. Questionnaires that are managed on a one-on-one basis are more reliable than the ones managed through telephone conversations. In a bid to know the clarity and certainty of the instrument selected in the article, a pilot study was carried out in advance before the main study.
The importance of this pilot study is in assisting the researchers to note areas where adjustments are vital (Polit & Beck, 2008). Such areas could include changes of definitions, research questions, and sampling techniques. After describing the research design, the researcher presented the progression of data collection incomprehensible and consistent steps.
Analysis of the Findings and the Interpretive Dimensions of the Results
In the article by Suhonen, Valima and Leino-Kilpi, the instruments employed a suitable consistency and validity. Nevertheless, they are as well prone to some criticisms. In a confrontation with the predicament of lacking an appropriate instrument, a researcher should develop such a device.
The perceptions of the researcher who builds up the instrument could have a profound influence on the outcomes of the research. Additionally, since HRQoL applied in the article is an exclusively personal opinion, and thus generic tools like the EQ-5 D might not essentially recognize it. The article offers lucid illustrations of the way individualized care boosts the quality of life and satisfaction with health care. Given that investigations of HRQoL might rely on the applied instrument, this study chose to employ two instruments.
The results in the article were obtained from a single source and a questionnaire. Different aspects could intercede in the collection of data progression to bring about arbitrary error. These aspects encompass transient personal aspects like weariness and time demands, situational aspects like the occurrence of other individuals or disruption, differences in the management of questionnaires in various sections, and management by the nurse in the ward. All the aforementioned aspects could influence the outcome of the research. The patients filled in the questionnaire before their discharge because of reported response rates.
The findings in the article could have been subject to the fast turnover following surgical care. In this regard, care must be put into effect in making general conclusions since the research was carried out in surgical wards in a Finnish hospital. The sample size for the study was nonetheless validated by the necessity of statistical scrutiny, but power scrutiny was not carried out. Surgical patients embraced the perception that nursing practices had promoted their person-centeredness in the clinical condition. Caution was generally given in an individualized manner. Previous outcomes indicate the non-existence of individualized nursing care.
On the contrary, complexity has been encountered in executing the principles of individualized nursing care (Suhonen, Valima, & Leino-Kilpi, 2005). Per the self-assessments of patients, their living conditions were considered less often. Identifying the personal life condition of patients is a fundamentally significant component of holistic care and its significance is further stressed at the period of healing following a short period of hospitalization, in addition to patient education. Probably, patients are not considered as individuals but as standard surgical cases. Therefore, there is the need for further studies that could take into consideration more managed designs and make use of more improved methods like structural equation modeling.
As evident in this research paper, the process of analyzing an article entails a thorough assessment of every phase of the research progression. This paper does not hinge on criticism, but on the scrutiny of the article by Suhonen, Valima and Leino-Kilpi. The scrutiny employs an unbiased and objective approach to emphasize both weaknesses and strengths in a bid to discover if the article is credible and trustworthy. In the article, some concerns have been highlighted and they are vital for establishing interventions for person-centered surgical patients and better results like the quality of life and satisfaction with the care.
The information from the questionnaire could help in establishing and transforming acute patient care to satisfy the demands of individual patients instead of focusing on groups of patients. The vital significance of this element to surgical patients lies in the fact that with this knowledge, nurses can promote person-centeredness in health care and develop the most efficient care for every patient. Therefore, even though the article by Suhonen, Valima and Leino-Kilpi has some clear weaknesses as shown in this paper, one can conclude that the article is useful in the field of nursing.
Dubois, A., Pomey, P., Girard, F., & Brault, I. (2013). Conceptualizing performance of nursing care as a prerequisite for better measurement: a systematic and interpretive review. BMC Nursing, 12(1), 5-17.
Goodman, W. (2010). Patient-centered care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(7), 689-699.
Koren, J. (2010). Person-centered care for nursing home residents: The culture-change movement. Health Affairs, 29(2), 312-317.
Pelzang, R. (2010). Time to learn: understanding patient-centered care. British journal of nursing, 19(14), 912-917.
Polit, H., & Beck, C. (2008). Nursing research. New Delhi, India: Williams and Wilkins.
Suhonen, R., Valima, M., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2005). Individualized care, quality of life and satisfaction with nursing care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(3), 283–292.